Insects: The insects photographed were NOT listed in either the IUCN Red List (under near-threatened or threatened categories) or CITES Appendices when acquired. The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) list assesses the conservation status of animal and plant species worldwide and is used to drive conservation efforts (1). CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is a voluntary agreement between countries to ensure that the international wildlife trade does not threaten the survival of species (2). The Appendices specify the protected species. All specimens photographed were non-living when obtained and purchased from US-based vendors. Priority is given to those sellers who import directly from farms or breeders. Effectively implemented butterfly farms, for example, encourage the preservation of native habitats needed to raise the butterflies (as opposed to cattle grazing, logging, palm oil production, or other industries that require clear-cutting of the forest). Farming operations can also diversify the economic opportunities in local communities and increase environmental awareness (3, 4, 5, 6, 7). It should be noted that vendors (in my experience so far) consider their supply chains as proprietary information and will identify their sources by type but not name. Even if known, there would likely need to be a certification or grading system in place to identify which operations are effective.

Gibeon meteorite: The Gibeon meteorite is part of a jewelry piece, purchased from a US-based company. The Namibian government banned the export of these meteorites in 2004 through the National Heritage Act (8). The jewelry company states that their meteorite specimens were legally imported prior to the export ban.


Kodak ENDURA prints: Kodak’s print life estimates for ENDURA papers are as follows: typical home (120 lux average light level) or museum (150 lux) at 100+ years, office (450 lux) at 35 years, moderate-intensity commercial reflection display (1000 lux) at 8.5 years, and high-intensity commercial reflection display (5000 lux) at 20 months. A “typical” room in a home in this case would be one with a south-facing window, two west-facing windows, a temperature of 75°F, and humidity of 50% (1). Wilhelm Imaging Research (WIR) standardizes their light-stability testing at 450 lux and 60% humidity (2, 3). WIR reports a permanence rating for ENDURA papers to be generally less than 20 years (4). Fuji Crystal Archive prints (5): WIR’s print permanence ratings for Fuji Crystal Archive paper (at 450 lux and 60% humidity) are as follows: 26 years if unframed, 40 years if framed under standard glass/acrylic, and 50 years if framed under UV filtering glass/acrylic (6). Styrene mounted prints: The durability and longevity of the styrene mounted prints is unclear. Styrene is a plastic-based material that does not absorb moisture (and should not warp from changes in humidity). The prints are permanently bonded to the surface. This would not be considered an “archival” process, as the photos cannot be removed from the mount. Handling & placement: The prints should be handled by the edges or underside (avoid touching the print surface). In general, it is not recommended to place photographic prints in areas with direct sunlight, high temperatures (>80°F), or high or low humidity (<35% or >60%)(7). These factors will accelerate the deterioration of the print. Areas with fireplaces, radiators, vents, large temperature swings, or a high risk of water leaks should also be avoided. Keeping the print framed and matted while on display will guard against damage. The framing package lessens environmental impacts (e.g., water, airborne pollutants, dust, etc.) while the matting keeps the glazing from coming in contact with the print (8).


Color representation: The appearance (e.g., color and brightness/contrast) of the photographs on your screen may be somewhat different than that on the products, due to technological factors and/or lighting factors. Technological factors can include calibrated versus non-calibrated monitors, variations between monitor manufacturers/models, and the difference between monitor and print color ranges (gamuts); lighting factors can include variations in print appearance under daylight versus artificial light and bulbs with different color temperatures.

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